Glossary

Antioxidant
Antioxidants are active substances that help protect our body against oxidative damage caused by free radicals. Free radicals are highly unstable molecules that arise from many physiological and environmental events. Smoking, pollution, physical activity, sunlight, and conversion of food into energy, are all bodily processes that produce free radicals. Although naturally occurring, an excessive concentration of these molecules can cause oxidative stress that could potentially lead to cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, etc. Antioxidants molecules counteract oxidative stress by interacting with free radicals and inhibiting their action on cellular membrane. Examples of antioxidants include vitamins C and E, selenium, glutathione, and carotenoids.
B-complex vitamins
In humans, B-complex vitamins are involved in energy metabolism. Any deficiencies can cause chronic fatigue, sleep disorder and neuropathy. Some specific B-complex vitamins are involved in other body activities. Vitamin B12 and folic acid, for example, play an important role in red blood cell synthesis and deficiencies may cause anemia. Folic acid is also involved in cellular development and division; a deficiency can cause neural tube defect (spina bifida, encephalitis) in newborns.

To meet their needs, yeast is capable of synthesizing its own B vitamins. Like any living organism, they have an excellent storage mechanism for B-vitamins. These vitamins occur mainly in bound form as components of enzymes and coenzymes.

  • Thiamine is linked with phosphoric acid.
  • Riboflavin occurs in yeast flavoproteins, highly tied to proteins.
  • Pantothenic acid, one of the vitamins first isolated from yeast, is a constituent of coenzyme A.
  • Niacin is present in yeast as the amide of nicotinic acid.
  • Pyridoxine occurs as pyridoxal and pyridoxamine in coenzymes.
  • Biotin is found in yeast largely bound to proteins.
Bioavailability
Bioavailability is a subcategory of absorption that represents the fraction of the nutrient intake that will reach the systemic circulation. The majority of the vitamin and mineral supplements available in stores are made with inorganic nutrients. Under this form, these molecules are not as well absorbed and are less bio-available. On the other hand, when they are bound to a food matrix, they are more readily available for digestion and absorption. Yeast can serve as a bio-carrier. Used as a food matrix, it can help deliver important nutrients including B vitamins, minerals and trace minerals.
Brewers Yeast

The active brewer yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is responsible for converting fermentable sugars into alcohol and other by-products. The yeast slurry also called the barm is a major component of beer. It is collected directly from the fermenter and usually has the consistency of a thin cream. Once passed through a sieve and pressed, the brewers yeast is then dried by heat. This thermal process will inactivate the yeast enzymes and will cause the yeast to lose its fermentation power.

Brewer yeast being generally very bitter, some manufacturers use an additional process to produce what is called debittered brewer yeast.  This process helps remove the water soluble flavour compounds (hops) responsible for the bitter taste.

Available in a powder, flake or in tablets, brewers yeast is generally used as a nutrient supplement. Nutritionists will recommend its use because it is a rich source of B-complex vitamins and minerals including chromium, selenium, zinc, phosphorus and magnesium. It is also a good source of protein and dietary fibres. It may also contain nutrients that have yet to be discovered.

For centuries, people have been taking it on a daily basis, one tablespoon of brewers yeast, mixed with water, rice, tomato juice, etc. It is often used to stimulate appetite and milk production during lactation. Some people use it as a supplement for chronic acne, furunculosis, and treatment of acute diarrhea and prevention of diarrhea during travel. It is an excellent, low-cost food supplement for aging adults, and for growing and developing children.

Brewers yeast is frequently confused with nutritional yeast. Nutritional yeast is a primary grown food crop, which means it is cultivated specifically for use as a nutritional supplement.

Cheddar Cheese Sauce
Deactivated by heat
All whole cell yeast commercialised by Lallemand Inc for nutritional or food savoury applications are inactivated by a thermal treatment. During the drying process, the heat causes the denaturation of yeast enzymes which leads to the loss of their fermentation activity. Hence, there are no risks of microorganism contamination when these products are consumed.
Debittered yeast
After the beer fermentation, the yeast cream is collected and passed through a sieve to collect the brewer yeast content. This treatment does not however remove the beer flavour compounds responsible for the beer (hops) bitter taste. Some manufacturers will add another washing process which leads to the production of debittered yeast that has a more agreeable, less bitter taste.
Dietary fibres
Dietary fibres are a type of indigestible carbohydrate. They are classified in the two following groups.
  • Soluble fibres: Fruits, oats, barley and beans
  • Insoluble fibres: Vegetables, legumes, wheat and other cereals.
  • Fibres consumption helps to preserve normal bowel movement and elimination. Their consumption is also associated with reduced blood cholesterol, as dietary fibres act as cholesterol sequestrant and help eliminate cholesterol before it is absorbed in the intestines.
Emulsification
Emulsification is the process of mixing two or more liquids that are usually unmixable, such as water and oil. Emulsions usually tend to be less stable over time and revert into two distinctive phases. Many Lallemand products possess emulsification enhancing properties that enable a more stable dispersion of the droplets into the liquid matrix (dispersion medium) over time.
Engevita®
Engevita® is a premium nutritional yeast that can contribute to your recipe or application in many ways on taste, texture, and nutritional value. Engevita® products are whole cell yeast derived from primary grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They have been inactivated by heat and roller drum dried to obtain fine powders, flakes, mini flakes, and tablet grade powders, ideal for dietary supplements or direct consumption. Our whole cell yeast products can provide numerous functional food properties and represent a natural and healthy way to increase the nutritional value of your foodstuffs. Engevita® is a source of B-complex vitamins, vitamin D, dietary fiber and protein. All our whole cell yeast products are GMO-free and can be Kosher and Halal certified. Engevita® is also available in organic form.
Enriched medium
All microorganisms, including yeast, need the following basic components for growth and development:
  • A carbon source, generally coming from beet or cane molasses
  • A nitrogen source such as ammonium sulphate or phosphate
  • Minerals and traces elements (P, K, Ca, Na, Fe, Cu, Co)
  • Vitamins (biotin, pantothenate, thiamine, pyridoxine, etc.)
  • The growth medium can be enriched with one or several of these components. Often, vitamins, minerals or trace elements will be added in larger amounts than what is required for the optimal yeast growth. Still, these components will be absorbed and stored in the yeast cell compartments. Enriched yeast can be used in normal nutrition applications or for the production of encapsulated supplements.
FNI
Lallemand Fermentation Nutrients Ingredients (FNIs) are primary yeast peptone and autolyzates of the genus Saccharomyces cerevisiae that contain a high level of protein in the form of readily and easily assimilated amino acids and peptides. Some FNI products also contain nucleic acids, vitamins, minerals and other factors known to stimulate growth and metabolite production in many types of fermentation including lactic acid culture, pharmaceuticals and bioremediation.
Functional food
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada describes functional food as ‘’foods enhanced with bioactive ingredients and which have demonstrated health benefits’’. Functional foods usually have demonstrated beneficial physiological effects in the prevention, management, and/or treatment of chronic diseases that is beyond basic nutrition. They can come from conventional foods or from the addition of a bioactive constituent in conventional food, such as vitamins and minerals, probiotics, and β-glucans. The FDA (Food and Drug Administration) regulates all claims the industry can make to promote their products.
GMO free
All the products supplied by Lallemand Bio-Ingredients are propagated from the microbial strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  These strains are rigorously checked and analyzed to ensure their identity and purity. According to our historical files and analytical data, we have no direct or indirect evidence that any of our strains kept in our culture collection and produced on our premises has ever been genetically modified. Other non-yeast ingredients used in our products have either certification from our suppliers affirming they have been manufactured in such a manner that genetically modified organisms are not incorporated in their production and/or have been tested negative by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) testing. Our products are also considered non-GMO under the current European legislation (regulations 1829/2003/EC and 1830/2003/EC).
Kokumi
Kokumi is similar to umami, meaning that it has the potential to enhance already existing flavours. However, the sensation it procures is different. The secret of kokumi is in the way you feel while consuming the food product. Kokumi is a feeling of richness and fullness in the flavour. Lallemand is able to provide kokumi to you through our products rich in nucleotides.
Kosher
The Hebrew word kosher means fit or proper as it relates to kosher dietary law. Kosher foods can be eaten by Jewish, and can be used as ingredients in the production of additional food items. To have our products certified Kosher, Lallemand Bio-Ingredients has emitted a request to a Kosher related organisation by submitting all ingredients used in the manufacturing of all products.  When that organisation determined that our product could be certified, our plants had a rabbinic inspection to assure that all kosher laws were respected.
Lake States®
Lake States® Torula is a specially grown primary torula yeast with a unique flavor profile and binding capacity. For over 50 years, Lake States® has been a leader in the development and commercialization of inactive dried torula yeast for the food industry, pharmaceuticals, industrial fermentations, animal feed, and pet food markets. Torula yeast products can be used to help reducing the use of additives such as MSG and HVPs. They are designed to impart savory notes, enhance texture and nutritional characteristics in foods. They are ideal for a broad range of processing temperatures and preparation techniques, including microwave.  
Lalmin®
Lalmin® mineral and vitamin yeasts are inactivated whole cell yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) product containing elevated levels of specific minerals and/or vitamins. Lalmin® is produced either by enhancing and converting the natural endogenous vitamin of the yeast, or by supplementing the natural yeast fermentation with measured levels of minerals and/or vitamins. The yeast cream is then pasteurized and dried. This process allows selected micronutrients to interact with the yeast cell components. The gentle processing conditions allow preservation of essential nutrients from yeast.  
LBI
LBI are products comprising inactive whole cell yeast, mainly used for helping with taste and texture optimization. They are yeast of the genus Saccharomyces cerevisiae that have been inactivated by heat, roller dried and ground. LBI products can provide a number of food enhancement benefits and represent a natural and healthy way to increase the nutritional value of your foodstuffs as it is naturally high in B-complex vitamins and contains high quality proteins. Some of our whole cell yeast products are GMO-free and can be Kosher and Halal certified.  
Lyfe™
Lallemand yeast extracts are mainly derived from primary grown baker’s yeast and are referred to as baker’s yeast extracts. Yeast extracts can also be made from other sources of yeast from alcoholic fermentations such as beer making and are known as distillers yeast extracts. This type of alcohol yeast is quite different from baker’s yeast since they have been made used to convert sugars to alcohol. The resultant yeast extracts will be nutritionally different from the baker’s yeast extract. Lallemand LyfeTM yeast extracts contain peptides, free amino acids, nucleic acid and other compounds, which, just like seasonings, help to improve taste, but also bring out and balance flavors in food products.
Macronutrients
Macronutrients are nutrients that our body requires in large amounts in order to survive (macro means ‘’large’’). These are the constituents that contribute to caloric intake and provide the energy our body needs for growth, metabolism, tissue repair, and many other very important bodily functions. Carbohydrates and proteins both contribute to 4 calories per gram whereas fat contributes to 9 calories per gram. The only other molecule that provides calories is alcohol, which is not considered a macronutrient as it is not necessary for survival.
Micronutrients
Micronutrients are nutrients that are required in smaller quantities but that are still necessary for wellness and health. Vitamins and minerals are good examples. As tiny as the amounts are, however, the consequences of their absence are severe. Micronutrient deficiency can have a great impact on mental and physical performance, immune function, vision, growth and development, etc.
Minerals
Minerals are elements that originate in the earth and cannot be made by living systems. Plants obtain minerals from the soil, and most of the minerals in our diets come from directly from plants or indirectly from animal sources. Minerals may also be present in the water we drink, but this varies with geographic locale. Minerals from plant sources may also vary from place to place, because soil mineral content varies geographically. Minerals are essential for body functioning and structure. They help to build body tissues (e.g. bone) or to regulate metabolic activities. Chromium, for example, is needed for glucose metabolism, increases effectiveness of insulin, muscle function. Copper is used in the formation of red blood cells and pigment; it is also needed for bone health. Iron is needed to produce blood cells and deficiency can cause anaemia. Iodine is essential for the body’s hormones and a deficiency can cause goitre (swellings in the neck).
Nucleotides
Nucleotides are organic molecules composed of nucleosides and phosphate molecules. They are monomers, or building blocks, of nucleic acids, such as RNA or DNA. In the flavor industry, nucleotides are commonly used to impart the umami flavor to food. Only very small amounts are required to impart a very savory sensation. Products high in nucleotides, such as High-LyfeTM can be utilized to bring out taste and round off sharp notes. These products can be used in a wide range of applications, and in combination with other yeast extracts. Additionally, the use of low salt High-LyfeTM yeast extracts is an effective way to reduce sodium all the while helping to maintain the salt perception.
Nutritional yeast
Nutritional yeast is grown on vitamin and mineral enriched molasses. At the end of the growth period, the culture is pasteurized and dried to kill the yeast. The inactive yeast will not continue to grow in the intestine and use up the nutrients. Hence, it should not be confused with active yeast, which is used in bread, beer and wine making, which if eaten as is, would continue to grow in the gastrointestinal tract and use the nutrients from food, robbing the body of valuable nutrients. Nutritional yeast is used as a food ingredient or as a supplement to improve nutrition. It has a pleasant nutty-cheesy flavor and is rich in protein, B vitamins and minerals.  It is available in flakes or powder (1 tablespoon powdered = 2 tablespoons flakes) and is a popular ingredient among vegans and health buffs that use it to make cheese substitutes, gravies, and many other dishes.  It is also a great topping for popcorn.  Nutritional yeast can be found in health food stores and drug store. Nutritional yeast is very similar to brewer yeast, which is also used as a nutritional supplement and is made from the same strain of yeast.  The difference is that brewer yeast is a by-product of beer production and retains some of the bitter flavour of hops.
Primary Yeast
Primary yeast, also called baker yeast, is yeast grown on a controlled synthetic medium. To be cultivated, the primary yeast needs a good source of carbon, generally coming from beet or cane molasses, a source of nitrogen such as ammonium sulphate or phosphate, minerals and traces elements (P, K, Ca, Na, Fe, Cu, Co) as well as vitamins (biotin, pantothenate, thiamine, pyridoxine, etc.). To favour the yeast biomass production, instead of alcoholic production, the medium also needs to be supply with oxygen to assure aerobic condition.  The growth process is under constant supervision to prevent contamination and assure a quality finished product. This yeast is commonly used in the bakery industry but found other applications. When inactivated by heat, primary yeast can be used for animal and human nutrition, since it contains high amounts of proteins, B-complex vitamins, minerals and trace elements.
Protein
Nutritional yeast grown under controlled conditions can provide high levels of proteins, an amount comparable to that found in cereals and vegetables. A 20g portion of nutritional yeast can provide 10g of protein, a significant amount out of the daily 40-50g needed for women and 50-60g for men. The protein in yeast is better quality to that of soy. In legumes, the deficient amino acid is methionine and is well complemented by the protein in cereal grains, which in turn is limited by its deficiencies in lysine and threonine or tryptophan1. The amino acid balance in yeast complements that of these proteins.
RDA
For many years the National Research Council of the United States National Academy of Sciences has taken responsibility for establishing guidelines on what quantities of the various nutrients should be eaten by human males and females at various ages. These were called RDA (for Recommended Dietary Allowances, and often referred to as Recommended Daily Allowances). The RDA is the amount of selected nutrients considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of healthy people. It is based on scientific knowledge and has been presented by a committee of the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). The Canadian equivalent is the Recommended Nutrient Intakes. RDA is generally accepted throughout the world as a valid source of information. At least 40 different nations have as well as organisations have published standards similar to the RDA.
Reaction flavors
Reaction flavour is the term given to food flavourings produced by heating together two or more precursors under carefully controlled conditions. The water soluble flavour precursors comprise many different classes of organic compounds, including peptides, amino acids, sugars, and amino sugars, amines and nucleic acid derivatives. The reaction that occurs when amino acids and sugars are heated together is called Maillard reaction and is accompanied with a non-enzymatic browning and the production of aromas. The modern reaction flavour is a sophisticated product achieved by mixing in suitable proportions the “basic Maillard type” flavouring products (amino acids and sugars that were heated together), the aroma volatiles and other synergists or enhancers, fats or fatty acids, herbs and spices, etc.
Rheological properties
Rheology is the study of how a matter flows (both solids and liquids). Rheological properties encompass the way matter can be deformed, elasticity, viscosity, plasticity, and cohesiveness. Often times, the viscosity of a liquid will be measured by the distance it will be able to travel in a given time at a specific temperature. Many yeast products have the ability to modify the rheological properties of a liquid. For instance, they can increase viscosity without substantially modifying all other properties. Our products can provide body, increase stability, and improve emulsification.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the name of a strain of yeast. It is commonly isolated from the soil, fruits, food and beverages. It is widely used for bread making and the production of wine, beer, distilled beverages and fermented food. It occurs naturally on the surface of fruit and is present in dairy products where it plays an important role in the fermentation of kefir, coffee and cacao beans, and the production of traditional fermenting products.
Spray dried
To obtain a fine yeast powder, yeast manufacturers use a spray dryer to dry and bring the yeast water content down to 6%. This spray drying process transforms the yeast cream which is in a fluid state into a fine dried powder by spraying the cream into a hot drying medium. It is a one step continuous processing operation. Once the drying step is complete, the dried particles fall to the bottom of the vessel and are collected.
Torula yeast
Torula yeast is primary grown, dried inactive yeast and specialty products. They are designed to impart savory notes, enhance texture and nutritional characteristics in foods. Our Torula products can provide a number of food enhancement benefits and represents a natural and healthy way to enhance your food products. Torula yeast products, with the cell wall present, are designed to add mouthfeel and texture to the food to which they are added. They can also be used for their emulsification and flavour enhancement properties. All our Torula yeast products are GMO free and can be Kosher certified.
Umami
Umami, or “savoury” if directly translated from Japanese, cannot be defined as a specific taste. Rather, it enhances already existing flavours when added to a food product. Yeast products can be used to provide umami but also reduce salt content without affecting the flavor. The effect is comparable to the use of MSG, without any adverse effects.
Vitamins
Vitamins are a type of organic micronutrient that is necessary to maintain optimal health by supporting daily metabolic processes. However, our organism cannot synthesize those molecules at all or in sufficient quantities to meet our needs. As some vitamins are harder to obtain from dietary intake alone, supplements may help prevent deficiencies and prevent the onset of various chronic diseases or permanent damage. To this day, there are 13 recognized types of vitamins that all carry distinctive biological and chemical activity. Vitamins are essential for growth and development, and maintenance of cells, tissues, and organs.
Yeast
Yeast is a unicellular fungus that can convert sugar and starch into carbon dioxide bubbles and alcohol.   This characteristic has made it a useful ally in the production of bread, beer, and wine. There are many varieties of yeast.  Bread is made with baker yeast, which creates lots of bubbles that become trapped in the dough, making the bread rise and become light and airy when baked.  A small amount of alcohol is also produced, but it evaporates as the bread bakes. Beer and wine yeasts are used to convert sugar into alcohol and, in the case of beer and champagne, bubbles. Raw active yeast should never be eaten, since it will continue to grow in your intestine and rob your body of valuable nutrients. Once inactivated through pasteurization and drying, however, yeast can become a good source of nutrients.
Yeast Autolysates
Autolysis is the process of self-digestion, in which the cell is destroyed through the action of its own digestive enzymes. Autolysates are produced similar to the yeast extracts but cell walls are not removed in the process. This makes them partially water-soluble. Autolysates combine the positive attributes of yeast extracts and the cell walls resulting in smaller peptides for taste improvement and enhancement, texture, viscosity.
Yeast extracts
Yeast extracts are flavour contributor and flavour enhancer consisting of a combination of nucleic acids, peptides, polypeptides, amino acids, and other constituents. It is obtained from the yeast cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, formed in the production of baking yeast, brewing of beer or distillery of alcohol. It is used to provide the same functions as monosodium glutamate, although not to the same extent. It is used as a partial substitute for meat extract and also functions with other flavour ingredients such as hydrolysed vegetable proteins. It is used in soups, gravies, spreads, dressings, and meat products. Typical usage levels range from 0.1 to 2%.
Yesto-Seal®
Yesto-Seal® are brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) products that are specifically designed for tableting. Brewer’s yeast is a natural ingredient which is traditionally produced by washing, recovering and drying the yeast propagated during the production of beer. The yeast is dried at a controlled temperature which stops biological activity whilst maintaining its unique nutritional properties. Brewer’s yeast contains a natural mixture of high-grade protein, vitamins and minerals and provides an excellent cost effective source of ingredients to enhance the nutritional value of foodstuffs. Some products in the Yesto-Seal® range are Kosher and Halal certified, non-GMO, and clean label. The Yesto-Seal® range also includes a SO2 free version as well as version free from major allergens.